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Java Institute :: Research :: UNIKA Soegijapranata Semarang

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Ke Website UNIKA     

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Research

The Impact of Decentralization on the State of Environment at the Kali Tapak, Semarang, Indonesia

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By Y. Budi Widianarko on 17 March 2010

Pollution due to industrial discharges along the Kali Tapak River was and still is the main environmental problem in the Kali Tapak area. Although the pollution incidence in the 70s has staged the Tapak case as one of few pioneers of environmental movement in Indonesia, up to the present time public outcries complaining the pollution have still taken place intermittently. This indicates that the existing environmental management regime is not adequate in tackling the persisting problem. A shift from centralized toward decentralized governance has been started in 2000 following the implementation of the Local Government Act  (UU 22, 1999). According to this new regulation, a number of authorities previously belong to by central or provincial government, including environmental policy, is delegated to the local (municipal) government. This transition will of course give some impacts on pollution control activities at the Kali Tapak. The objective of the present study is therefore to establish whether the state of the environment at the Kali Tapak  is affected by the implementation of decentralization. To meet the objectives of this study both primary and secondary data were collected to gain information on the water quality of the Kali Tapak River and characteristics of liquid wastes discharged to the river water. Data of water quality include those from direct measurements and secondary sources, whereas data of liquid wastes were mainly of secondary nature. A sampling campaign at six locations along the Kali Tapak River was executed from October 27, 2003 to 21 January 2004. Analyses of water samples were conducted at the Laboratory of Semarang Institute for Industrial and Trade Research and Standardization. Measurements of six key parameters (i.e. TDS, TSS, BOD, COD, NO2-N, NO3-N, H2S and pH) revealed that the quality of water from six locations along the Kali Tapak River is lower than standard for the third class water (for aquaculture and irrigation purposes). Typically, water from all locations contains high concentrations of TDS, BOD and COD exceeding the MPLs except for COD at the river mouth (Location 6). In general results of two year monitoring of industrial effluents discharged into the Kali Tapak River exhibit a decreasing trend. An exception was found in liquid waste of the soap factory, PT. Bukit Perak, in which its BOD COD, and TSS levels always exceed the effluent standards all the way from January 2001 to March 2003. An attempt to draw a solid conclusion on the change water quality of the Kali Tapak River during the transitional period of decentralization is hampered by the limitation of available data. However, the two-year monitoring data of industrial effluents seems to likely serve as a good indicator for the state of environmental compliance among industries located at the Kali Tapak. Furthermore, a causal relationship between characteristics of industrial effluents and quality of the receiving water can tentatively be established

Keywords: Kali Tapak, Decentralization, Water Quality, Industrial Effluent

The Impact of the Hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake. Part I: Concentrations of Elements in Crops and Soil

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By Y. Budi Widianarko on 17 March 2010

In Asembagus (East Java, Indonesia) irrigation water is contaminated with effluent from the hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake resulting in a low pH and high levels of various elements. As a first step towards a risk assessment, locally produced food items (rice, maize, cassava leaf, cassava root, peanuts) were collected and concentrations of As, B, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn,Mo, Ni, Pb, V, Zn were compared to samples from a reference area and with literature values. Further, concentrations in rice were compared to total soil concentrations in paddy fields. Compared to the reference area, food items produced in the contaminated area had increased levels of Cd, Co, Ni and Mn in particular, while levels of Mo were lower. In contrast, total soil concentrations of Cd and Mn in particular have decreased whereas especially Mo was increased. In combination with the observed soil acidification, it is likely that the bioavailable concentration of most elements in the contaminated soil is higher (except for Mo) due to an increased weathering rate and/or input via the contaminated irrigation water. In terms of human health, concentrations in foods were generally within normal literature values. However, it was observed that essential elements (in particular Fe) known for their inhibitory effects on e.g. Cd and Mn toxicity did not accumulate in crops whereas Cd
and Mn did.

Key words: acid crater lakes, contamination, irrigation, metals, rice, soil

The Impact of the Hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake. Part II: A Total Diet Study

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By Y. Budi Widianarko on 17 March 2010


In Asembagus (East Java, Indonesia), surface water is contaminated with effluent from the hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake. In a previous study, we reported that food crops irrigated with this water had increased concentrations of various elements. Here, we present a total diet study for adults and 6-year-old children to determine if the mean daily intake of a broad range of elements is safe and adequate. For children, the intake of B, Mg, Mn and V is high with Hazard Quotients (HQ) of 1.1 (B), 1.4 (Mn) and 1.4 (V), respectively (no TDI is available for Mg). For Mn, the daily intake is high due to the consumption of locally produced rice. Drinking water is the main source of B, Mg and V. For adults, the intake of Mg, Mn and V is also high but HQ values are £ 0.7. For both children and adults, the intake of Ca, Zn and particularly Fe is below the RNI (Fe intake is 90% below the RNI for women). It is concluded the mean intake of elements is unbalanced and Fe deficiency is probably the most serious health problem. Toxic effects cannot be fully excluded since deficiency of essential elements such as Ca, Fe and Zn can increase the absorption and retention of various elements.

Keywords: daily intake, deficiency, metals, toxicity, volcanogenic pollution

The Impact of the Hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake: Risks of Excess Fluoride to Human Health

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By Y. Budi Widianarko on 17 March 2010

The Asembagus irrigation area (East Java, Indonesia) receives a high input of fluoride (F) via surface water that partially originates from the hyperacid crater lake of the Ijen volcano. Endemic dental fluorosis among local residents has been ascribed to F in water wells. In this study, the total F intake by children and adults was estimated, based on concentrations in well waters and foods throughout the area. These values were compared with the Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) for dental fluorosis among children and skeletal fluorosis among adults. Fluorosis hazard maps were prepared, identifying the most hazardous locations in the area. It was concluded that there is not only a high risk of dental fluorosis, but also of skeletal fluorosis. Based on the total daily intake, the lowest F concentration in drinking water that poses a risk of developing fluorosis is approximately 0.5 mg/l for dental fluorosis and 1.1 mg/l for skeletal fluorosis. This is below 1.5 mg/l, which is both the guideline value for drinking water from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Indonesian drinking water standard. This is the first documented case of human health problems that may be directly associated with natural pollutants originating from a volcano-hosted crater lake.


Keywords: Acid crater lake; Drinking water standard; Fluorosis; F total daily intake; Groundwater; Volcanic activity

The Semarang Environmental Agenda: A Stimulus to Targeted Capacity Building among the Stakeholders

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By Tjahjono Rahardjo on 08 February 2010

Recently, a sustainable development action plan was prepared for the city of Semarang, Indonesia. An essential component of this action plan was the building up of an effective partnership among the diverse stakeholders to ensure their commitment. Such an approach in which the city's stakeholders are actively involved in decision making was new for Semarang. This paper describes the roles and attitudes of the different stakeholders in the development of the action plan, and the complex and difficult process to forge partnerships between them. The paper explores the constraints faced during this participatory process, and suggests that there is a need to build the capacity of all stakeholders involved - local government, civil society and the private sector - so that they will be able to play their envisaged respective roles better.

Keywords: Local government; Partnerships; Sustainable development; Capacity building; Local agenda 21; Indonesia


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