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Java Institute :: Research :: UNIKA Soegijapranata Semarang

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Ke Website UNIKA     

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Research

Adolescents in Love: The Practice of Pacaran in Semarang

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By A. Rachmad Djati Winarno on 08 February 2010

This study focused on the practice of dating relationship (pacaran) of adolescents. The respondents are 59 adolescent couples which at least one of them is high school student. Structured face to face interview was conducted to both parties. Participants’ age ranges from 14 to 25 years old; all of them lived in Semarang, Indonesia. While duration of pacaran ranges from 1 to 48 months; the average is 13 months. Mostly the dating relationship is known by parents and friends. This study covered 10 pacaran activities, from holding hands to sexual intercourse. Analyses found out that there was an order of “difficulty” in pacaran activities. The order is not affected by sex and religion. Two dimensions of pacaran were detected, namely superficial intimacy and deep intimacy rituals. Only superficial intimacy ritual was correlated with duration of relationship in both sexes. Significant correlations were also found between age and the two levels of intimacy rituals among males, but not among females. Regarding the places of conducting sexual activities, most respondents maximally do holding hands in public places and start forehead kissing in private places.

Keywords: pacaran activities, superficial intimacy, deep intimacy

Democratization, Decentralization and Environmental Conservation in Indonesia

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By Y. Budi Widianarko on 17 March 2010

With a population of nearly 240 million, Indonesia can be considered as one of the largest democratic countries in the world. The fall down of Suharto, an authoritarian president who had been in power for 32 years, in 1998 has marked a transition of Indonesia toward a democratic state. The decentralization, to some extent, has paralyzed the effectiveness of Environmental Act No. 23, 1997 and its subordinate regulations. Implementation of decentralization policy provides space to local government, i.e. regency (kabupaten) and municipality (kota), to exercise greater autonomy. A higher degree of local autonomy combined with direct local election has shaped the attitude of most local governments to become more revenue oriented. In order to boost their local revenue (pendapatan asli daerah), municipalities or regencies eagerly produce local regulation (peraturan daerah). Driven by revenue generation attitude, many local regulations even justify the exploitation of natural resources and environment. Even worse, although the revenue had been generated from natural resources, no return whatsoever is allocated for the conservation. Local autonomy has also opened windows for privatization to take place easier. Private corporation, be it national or global, can now approach the local government directly. This leads to not only exploitation but also commodification of natural resources. 

Keywords: decentralization, local autonomy, environmental degradation, conservation

Kampung Jayengaten: The Emergence and Disappearance of A Kampung in Semarang

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By Tjahjono Rahardjo on 08 February 2010

Kampung Jayengaten is a settlement located in the centre of Semarang. Its emergence was a result of Semarang’s growing importance as one of the most important economic and political centres in Java.  The success of Semarang as a port and as a centre of trade and administration by the beginning of the twentieth century brought with it an influx of people, most of whom were Indonesians from all parts of Java and the outer islands. These people settled in former rural villages which have become densely built up areas; what is now known as kampungs (unplanned, spontaneous urban settlements), such as Kampung Jayengaten. With the expansion of Semarang’s urban area these kampungs became physically (if not economically and socially) inseparable from the city. During the Suharto regime, which saw big business as the key to economic development, kampungs were often demolished (and their residents evicted) to be replaced by economically more profitable uses, such as toll highways, factories,  office blocks, shopping malls, hotels, etc. Though Suharto has already been deposed for more than a decade, such evictions continue to happen in Indonesian cities. This paper looks at how Jayengaten came into being, as an outcome of Semarang’s urbanisation, and describe how the same urbanisation process later caused the disappearance of Kampung Jayengaten and the eviction of its residents.

Keywords: Jayengaten, Semarang, kampung, land conflict, housing, eviction

Natural Pollution Caused by the Extremely Acid Crater Lake Kawah Ijen, East Java, Indonesia

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By Y. Budi Widianarko on 17 March 2010

Lakes developing in volcano craters can become highly acidic through the influx of volcanic gases, yielding one of the chemically most extreme natural environments on earth. The Kawah Ijen crater lake in East Java (Indonesia) has a pH < 0.3. It is the source of the extremely acid and metal-polluted river Banyupahit (45 km). The lake has a significant impact on the river ecosystem as well as on a densely populated area downstream, where agricultural fields are irrigated with water with a pH between 2.5 and 3.5. The chemistry of the river water seemed to have changed over the past decade and the negative effect in the irrigation area increased. A multidisciplinary approach was used to investigate the altered situation and to get insight in the water chemistry and the hydrological processes influencing these alterations. Moreover, a first investigation of the effects of the low pH on ecosystem health and human health was performed. Water samples were taken at different sites along the river and in the irrigation area. Sampling for macroinvertebrates was performed at the same sites. Samples of soil and crop were taken in the irrigation area. All samples were analysed for metals (using ICP-AES) and other elements, and concentrations were compared to local and international standards. The river carries a very high load of SO4, NH4, PO4, Cl, F, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Al and other potentially toxic elements. Precipitation and discharge data over the period of 1980 – 2000 clearly show that the precipitation on the Ijen plateau influences water chemistry of the downstream river. Metal concentrations in the river water exceed the concentrations mentioned in Indonesian and international quality guidelines, even in the downstream river and the irrigation area. Some metal concentrations are extremely high, especially iron (up to 1600 mg/l) and aluminium (up to 3000 mg/l). The food-webs in the acidic parts of the river are highly underdeveloped. No invertebrates were present in the extremely acid water and, at pH 2.3, only chironomids were found. This also holds true for the river water with pH 3.3 in the downstream area. Agricultural soils in the irrigation area have a pH of 3.9 compared to a pH of 7.0 for soils irrigated with neutral water. Decreased yields of cultivated crops are probably caused by the use of Al containing acid irrigation water. Increased levels of metals (especially Cd, Co, Ni and Mn) are found in different foodstuffs, but still remain within acceptable ranges. Considering local residents' diets, Cd levels may lead to an increased risk for the human health. Fluoride exposure is of highest concern, with levels in drinking water exceeding guideline values and a lot of local residents suffering from dental fluorosis. In short, our data indicate that the Ijen crater lake presents a serious threat to the nvironment as well as human health and agricultural production.

Keywords: Acidic crater lake; ecosystem health; human health; Indonesia; low pH; metal pollution; water chemistry

Needs of Adolescents Specific Groups in relation to Their Sexuality Development: A Case in Central Java

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By A. Rachmad Djati Winarno on 08 February 2010

Sexuality or reproductive health education is not (much) implemented in schools, including in senior high schools, in Central Java, Indonesia. Some possible reasons for the absence of such an education are that sexuality education is perceived as not needed in those schools, or the available modules are regarded by school managers as not suitable for the respective schools. The objective of this study is mainly to identify the sexual situations of Central Java adolescents from various background and their needs related to their sexual and interpersonal development. This study was conducted in six regions differing in maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Central Java, Indonesia. The participants were 10,608 Senior High School students (aged 15-20 years old) from various school types, namely public, Islamic, Catholic, Protestant, and national schools. Sixty-five schools were involved in this survey. In general, students reported frequent psychosexual problems, had low knowledge about sexuality, and reported needs for training and information about sexuality. It was found that there were different conditions among students in regions differing in MMR. Students living in regions with higher MMR reported more frequent psychosexual problems, were less well informed about sexuality, and indicated different needs related to their sexual and interpersonal development. Differences were also found among adolescents studying in various school types. The most apparent differences were between students of Islamic and national schools on one hand and students of public and Catholic schools on the other hand. Gender differences in psychosexual problems, knowledge, and needs related to sexuality were also apparent. These results have implications on designing and delivering sexuality education for Senior High School students in Indonesia. The general condition of reproductive health in the respective area and school type (atmosphere) should be taken into consideration. Although the overall content of programs may be similar for all schools, there should be specific emphases in delivering the programs with regards to school type and region.

Keywords: Central Java, sexuality education, school type, sexuality development

Oral Narratives of the Chinese Community in Semarrang: Remnants of the Forgotten

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By G.M. Adhyanggono on 08 February 2010

Oral tradition is still important due to its use of face-to-face interaction. There are a lot of research findings that still underscore the idea that face-to-face interaction remains the most significant means of communication for human being. To a certain degree other means of communication such as those of written and electronic media are only of the substitutive ‘forms’ of face-to-face interaction. Nowadays, most of the Indonesian have forgotten their oral tradition including oral narratives. Oral narratives are considered for their being out-dated, excessively glorifying and exposing the romantic past and therefore useless. Yet, it is almost forgotten that in connection with the sustainability of Indonesia as a nation there are many basic things needs preserving and developing. One of them is about the national consensus on racial and ethnical heterogeneity. The study on the Chinese community in ‘Pecinan’ (Chinatown) is interestingly conducted due to the fact that Chinese culture has been ‘silenced’ for almost 32 years. Regarding the fact, it is quite interesting to find out oral narratives in the community. This study is concerned with the existence of oral narratives and how they are appreciated.

Key Words: Oral Narratives, Oral Traditions, Folklore

(This is the abstract of the paper presented at International Symposium of Culture, Literature and Media held by the Faculty of Letters, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, on 14 - 16 March 2006.)

Peranakan Chinese Cultural Identity: An Issue of Security, Liberation and Authenticity in Semarang, Lasem and Tuban

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By G.M. Adhyanggono on 08 February 2010

This paper deals with a perspective to see cultural identity of Peranakan Chinese in the communities as the point of interest. It is commonly, but still arguably, believed that the cultural identity of Peranakan Chinese has been long “doubted” its authenticity and position in the formation of Indonesian “cultural identity”_ another issue which is also questionable. As a result, issues of Peranakan cultural identity on security, liberation and, of course, authenticity are worth-bringing up; especially when politics and ideology are considered the “most” determinative approaches in articulating the emergence of the issues. Therefore, the issues have long been “problematized” from politics and ideology standpoints. Yet, the issues are tried to be seen in “slightly” different perspective, that is of  folkloric approach. This paper tends to see security, liberation and authenticity as “less problematic” in shaping cultural identity. The hypothesis derives from some findings and hints of the folklore research conducted to some Peranakan Chinese communities in Semarang, Lasem and Tuban.  Therefore, this paper sets out to do two things; first is to briefly elucidate the issues of security, liberation and authenticity in the formation of cultural identity (a theoretical perspective); and, second is to reveal some Peranakan Chinese perceptions of the issues above to their cultural identity as found in Semarang, Lasem (Central Java) and Tuban (East Java).

Key Words: Cultural Identity, Security, Liberation, Authenticity, Peranakan Chinese

Predicting Adolescents Dyadic Sexual Behaviours in Six Regions in Central Java

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By A. Rachmad Djati Winarno on 08 February 2010

Adolescent reproductive health has been a national and international concern for many years. In many cases, reproductive health of young people is related to their sexual behaviours. This study focused on the sexual behaviours of young people in relation to several psychosocial variables. The participants were 165 Senior High School students recruited outside school setting in six regions of Central Java. The study found different patterns between males and females in their dyadic sexual behaviours and the psychosocial correlates. It was revealed that males’ involvement in dyadic sexual behaviours was much more related to their courtship efficacy, while among females refusal efficacy is predictive to their involvement in dyadic sexual behaviours. Own romantic experiences were also correlated with the sexual behaviours. These results might imply slightly different approaches in promoting adolescent sexual and reproductive health.

Key words: adolescents, dyadic sexual behaviours, psychosocial aspects

Risk Perception of Pollution from the Kawah Ijen Crater Lake among the Local Communities in the Asembagus Irrigation Area

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By Y. Budi Widianarko on 17 March 2010

The high acidity and pollution of the Banyupahit-Banyuputih river is of special concern since the polluted river water is used for irrigation of agricultural land in the 3,564 ha Asembagus area in the regency of (Kabupaten) Situbondo that has approximately 50,000 inhabitants and is mainly used for the cultivation of sugar cane and rice. Risk analysis showed serious environmental problems. The low soil pH (approximately 3.5) in the Asembagus irrigation area has decreased crop yields. Moreover high levels of Cd and F cause serious human health risks. To effectively understand and communicate risk, it is necessary to understand the public perception. This study is aimed at gaining a better understanding of inhabitants’ perception and knowledge concerning drinking water and agricultural data. The survey covered twenty three (23) villages (desa) in three districts (kecamatan) in Situbondo, i.e. Asembagus and two adjacent districts of Banyuputih and Jangkar. Fourteen of twenty three villages receive water from the polluted Banyuputih River. The survey was focused on two different populations, selected based on each their typical uses of water. Seventy six (76) individuals were chosen as household respondents by means of a snowball sampling campaign. Sixty one (61) farmer respondents were selected by means of a snowball sampling. For the household survey, the questions concern the sources, quantity, quality and costs of the drinking water. The interviews will also include health related problems and questions will be asked considering the source of the problems. For the farmer survey, questions concern quantitative use of the water and quantitative loss of yield of major crops. Moreover, perception of farmer respondents on the quality of their agricultural water was also explored. In addition, information on demographic characteristics of the respondents was also collected. In terms of colour and taste of water for domestic purposes, generally the households - except those having access to piped water - considered the water is not of ideal quality. This study revealed that a reasonable portion of the respondents do have some detailed knowledge on water quality since they are able to presume that the polluting substances are sulphur and lime. The perceptions of respondents gathered in the present study support the results of chemical measurements of well water reported in an earlier study. Likewise, in the case of drinking water a few respondents could blame sulphur as the contaminating substance which again confirms the findings of previous studies on contamination of water in wells near by the acidic river understudied.Recognition of several effects of the contaminated drinking water on health, i.e. dental skin,  problems, eye irritation,  by almost half of the respondents indicates that risks associated with drinking water has actually been comprehended by the people living in the area. This finding also supports previous observations that in the Asembagus area, dental fluorosis was found among the majority of the local residents. In the case of irrigation water, most farmer respondents correctly pointed out sulphur as the troubling substance, and it was supported by their perception of colour. These perceptionsmatch compatibly with the results of chemical analyses of river water.  There is a clear and balanced divide between sugar cane farmers and rice farmers regarding the effect of polluted water on crop yield. The diversity of tolerance toward acidic and contaminated irrigation water was reflected by a gradient of crop’s yield loss.There is already a partial awareness of the problems among the communities in the Asembagus area that needs to be raised to achieve a full awareness among all the members of the communities.Two priorities can be proposed as the natural outgrowth of this study, i.e. the public awareness campaign and stakeholders meeting to seeking solutions for improving the water quality and the provision of safe drinking water.

Keywords: ...

The Culture of Chinese Lasem in the Map of its Urban Settlement, Tradition and Gender Relations

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By G.M. Adhyanggono on 08 February 2010

This article is based on a field research whose long-term purpose is to possibly revitalize the unique culture of Chinese Lasem. Making use of tangible and intangible potentials that Chinese Lasem has, it is aimed at putting them altogether with the town folks’ everyday life so that they can be "packaged" into a vibrant and attractive tour product as a case in point. To achieve such a goal, a study on identifying Chinese settlements, folkbeliefs and gender relations was necessary to carry out since Lasem has unique Chinese settlements and cultural interactions with the locals. This article resulted from a qualitative and explorative research making use of library study, filed observation, and interviews with respondents by means of purposive sampling method. The data collection focuses on three aspects, namely: 1) the characteristics of Chinese settlement in Dasun, Babagan and Karangturi; 2) the traditions and folkbeliefs of Chinese communities in Lasem in relations with their settlements and cultural expressions; 3) the role and relations of Chinese men and women in relations with their settlements and cultural expressions. The outcome of the study is a map of social and cultural research that can be used to plan a strategy for revitalizing and preserving the unique culture of Chinese Lasem for the common good.

Key Words: Settlement, Folkbeliefs, Traditions, Gender


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